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to the Jews in a subtle (some would   war Europe were not remotely      “expectation of
             say deceptive) form of wording.  In   interested in leaving their relatively
             particular, the deliberate absence   prosperous western lifestyles and   a mass Jewish
             of a clear and explicit definition of   adopted nationalities, to face   emigration to the land
             what ‘a Jewish homeland’ really   pioneer hardships in what was
             meant in political terms resulted   an underdeveloped and harsh     of  Israel proved to be
             in the Balfour Declaration being a   environment in Palestine.
             virtually meaningless compromise,   Only zealots and the desperate,   grossly misplaced”
             open to a variety of interpretations.    poor and persecuted would choose
             The British approach, therefore, was   to go there, and then in much
             both pragmatic and opportunistic;   smaller numbers than anticipated   to mass Jewish immigration into
             they would sit on the fence and   and without the necessary        what Arabs viewed as the ancient
             allow events on the ground to work   finances for nation-building.  So,   Muslim Caliphate.  The result was
                                                                                the inevitable abandonment of the
                                                                                Mandate in 1948.

                                                                                1. C. Weizmann, Trial and Error: The Autobiography
                                                                                of  Chaim Weizmann (London: East & West Library,
                                                                                1950): 212.
                                                                                2. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs of  David Lloyd
                                                                                George (London: Oldhams, 1933-36).
                                                                                3. Colonel R. Meinertzhagen, Middle East Diary 1917
                                                                                to 1956 (London: Cresset, 1959): 190.
                                                                                4. J. Schneer, The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of
                                                                                the Arab-Israeli Conflict (London: Bloomsbury, 2010):
                                                                                5. K. Durkin, The Ambiguity of  the Balfour
                                 Founding pioneers of Gan Shmuel kibbutz, 1921  Declaration: Who caused it and why? (2013).

             out naturally, be what may. 4     hopes of establishing a majority   About The Author
             The Mandate failed miserably for   Jewish population in the land grew   Dr Kathy Durkin is a recently retired Senior
             several reasons.   First, Weizmann’s   increasingly remote by 1930.    Lecturer in Research Methodology at
                                                                                  Bournemouth University, with a Ph.D. in Cross
             expectation of a mass Jewish      Secondly, Britain’s implicit promises   Cultural Communication and Critical Thinking
             emigration to the land of Israel   to both Jews and Arabs were       and a Masters Research in Jewish History and
                                                                                  Culture.  She is the author of The Ambiguity
             proved to be grossly misplaced.    incompatible, and Britain completely   of the Balfour Declaration: Who caused it and
             The majority of Jews in post-     underestimated Arab resistance     why? (2013).

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